You do not wipe away the scars of centuries by saying: Now you are free to go where you want, do as you desire, and choose the leaders you please. You do not take a person who for years has been hobbled by chains and liberate him, bring him to the starting of a race and then say, “You are free to compete with all the others,” and still justly believe that you have been completely fair.
Thus it is not enough just to open the gates of opportunity. All our citizens must have the ability to walk through those gates.
This is the next and more profound stage of the battle for civil rights. We seek not just freedom but opportunity—not just a legal equity but a human ability—not just equality as a right and a theory but equality as a fact and as a result.
(June 4, 1965, President Lyndon B. Johnson delivered a commencement address at Howard University)
– Freedom Is Not Enough by James T. Patterson